Research paper: European colonial exploitation

Published under category: Essay Writing Tips | 2015-05-28 02:31:54 UTC

Context: European foreign colonial policy

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Congo

1. To encourage rubber collection, the African villagers were rewarded with cupfuls of coarse salt, cloth and beads. They were coerced by being cursed and given blows and others, who did not bring the required amount of rubber, or attempted to run away from the country, were shot by the white men.

2. The Africans were forced to build houses for the soldiers and feed them, including all their men, wives and hanger-ons. Africans stationed near the posts were supposed to bring timber and other materials.

3. The Africans’ normal lives were altered. They spent weeks in the forest collecting rubber hence were unable to pursue their own desires. The number of villagers and villages were also reduced due to deaths from hunger and starvation, and shooting by the white men. Some villagers also ran to refugee camps in other countries.

4. The Africans resisted the entry of the Belgians since they felt the Belgians were enslaving them with their many requests that included building houses for the soldiers and feeding them.

5. In overall, the rubber collection venture inflicted fear in the villagers, led to a number of deaths, reduced the number of villages and resulted in hunger and starvation.

 

Persia

1. D’ Arcy was not in full control of the exploration venture as the Persian government was to appoint an imperial commissioner to be consulted by the concessionaire and the directors of the company. The workmen were under the Persian government hence the concessionaire risked being sabotaged. On the expiry of the concession, all the materials, buildings and apparatuses became the imperial government property regardless of whether the concessionaire had made profits or not. Lastly, D’Arcy risked losing the concession in case he did not establish a company within two years.

2. The shah’s government would earn revenues through paid-up shares and an annual sum equal to 16 percent of annual profits. On the expiration of the concession, all the materials, buildings and apparatuses would become the property of the imperial government.

3. The concessionaire was to acquire land an building with the consent of the proprietors on agreement without making demands that surcharge the price ordinarily current for lands situate in their respective localities.

4. The Persians were supplied with petroleum for free when putting it into their own use. The Persians were to be employed in the companies established.

5. The Persian government was in charge of the workmen employed by the companies. The government also appointed an Imperial Commissioner to be consulted by the concessionaire and the directors of the companies.

 

Japan

1. Occidentalism is the admiration of all things that are Western, and the adoption and imitation of Western enlightenment. Nationalism is the rejection of foreign civilization, and retention of national features. Japan has undergone transformation due to Western influence but has not changed their nation’s innate character.

2. According to Fujioka, Japan is currently in a state of confusion due to civilization of two hemispheres (Western and Japan civilization). However, Fujioka is proud of Japan since time and space is currently mixed up. There is a revival of both ancient culture and Western civilization. The challenge of Japan is the harmonization of Western and Japan civilization.

3. European clothes have been adopted for as ceremonial costumes, work and general use. Sundays are today recognized as holidays unlike in the past when holidays were limited to the five sekku festivals. People live in European style houses, and foreign restaurants have been established everywhere. Japanese hotels serve foreign foods. Violin and piano are now the preferred musical instruments.

4. Social ranking affected Japan’s development since it restricted people with ambition to avocations of the house, instead of pursuing their own choices. People were contented since, however clever and able they were, they could not move to another social rank. Elimination of social rank allowed people to form new schemes and attempt new enterprises. Poor people ended up becoming millionaires.

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