Annotated bibliography on Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission

Published under category: Sample Essays | 2015-05-19 13:36:40 UTC

Context: Saudi Arabia

Keller, Josh. "Colleges Large and Small Help International Students Adjust to American Life." Chronicle Of Higher Education 56.8 (2009): B20-B23. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 June 2014. Keller's article discusses the increasing number of international students around the world in the universities and especially in the English program of the United States of America. In addition, officials have noticed the increasing number in the last couple of years in the Saudi students who are indeed increasing in a massive and incredible way. Keller has mentioned that we should focus more on the International students to make sure that what they are learning in foreign land is equivalent to what their countries probably are aspiring back at home. On the other hand, Keller's article has been published in 2009. It is a very great and organized article that grabbed my attention from the start. Through its arrangement, the article endeavors to show that many colleges in the US help international students to adjust to American life, particularly focusing on Saudi students. It has shown a picture of happy international students who seem to have adapted or fitted into American way of life. Keller focuses on Portland State University and tries as much to indicate how the 39 Saudi students have been helped by the university to be comfortable and fit into the American learning environment. The article is elaborate, especially the part talking about the increasing number of international students, and the mentioning of it in the article. According to Keller, "Campus officials welcomed the new arrivals ... the sudden influx of Saudi students a tenfold increase over the previous year." Additionally, it elaborated significantly the contribution of American universities that attracts more international students, when she mentioned that the campuses around the states provide for them the appropriate education. I will be using this article as source in many ways to support my proposal especially in the point of the increasing number of Saudi Students in the U.S. In addition, since it shows that international students were being helped to adjust to American life by many colleges in the US, such information would help me support my premise that the US has a fundamental role in attracting international students. American universities are providing them appropriate programs, whereas the government of Saudi also is working stringently to ensure their students’ study in the US is beneficial, for instance, seeing the academic adviser of Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission working to improve their adjustment in the US. Knickmeyer, Ellen. “Saudi Students Flood in as US Reopens Door.” The Wall Street Journal, 8 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 June 2014. Knickmeyer’s article presents a discussion regarding the rise of Saudi students in US particularly after US reopened the door again following constrained relations with Saudi after the September 11 attacks. According to Knickmeyer, the number of Saudi Arabian students attending US schools reduced significantly since 2001 to about 1,000 Saudis only in 2004 who were studying in the US. However, currently as the US reopened doors for Saudi students and as the government of Saudi Arabia started a massive foreign study government-paid program; in 2011 alone, 66,000 students were sent to US universities. The number of Saudi students studying in the US has risen significantly that, Saudi Arabia is the fastest growing source of US foreign students, actually ahead of China. The article has fundamental insights that are resourceful to my paper, especially having provided statistics on the subject. The article by Knickmeyer has firstly focused on the effect of US relations with Saudi Arabia following the September 11 attacks. This historical evaluation is indeed significant in understanding the nature of relations especially when there are security issues between two countries. More significantly, however, Knickmeyer has noted how the US worked on its foreign policy and reopened doors for more Saudi students join US schools. Notably, the US improved its foreign policy because of the financial crunch and it is true to identify in the article that Saudi students are indeed saviors of the US economy. It is also important for Knickmeyer to note that since 2005 the Saudi government has done a lot in supporting education. According to Knickmeyer since King Addullah took over, his administration emphasized on scientific education and as a result opened Saudi foreign policy to education exposure as an essential way of transforming Saudi and combating extremism. This article is important in supporting my proposal because it elucidates on how Saudi Arabian students manage life in US schools. For example, Knickmeyer noted that “dressed in caps and gowns, the college students packing a graduation ceremony in suburban Washington, D.C., acted like excited graduates anywhere in the United States” (n.p). This indicates how easily they were subservient to foreign culture where possible and could easily blend to enhance their socialization. Song, Jason. “More Saudi Arabians Studying in the US.” Los Angeles Times 24 Nov 2013: T102. Print. The article by Song presents a critical analysis of the rising number of Saudi students in the US, arguing that a study abroad scholarship program started by Saudi government has fueled the increase. Song indicates that the number of Saudi students in the US increased to 44,566 in 2012, projecting a 30% rise from 2011. Moreover, according to Song, the Saudi Arabian government is working robustly to increase the level of education in the country, for modernization and future capacity building. For instance, the kind of discrimination that was observed in female education is now fading away, as many women are studying now in the country. Further, the notion that only children from wealthy families could afford international education in Saudi Arabia is also changing since the scholarship programs target capable students from various backgrounds. Since the article is most recent as it was written in November 2013, the information contained is fundamental in supporting my proposal that there is a current increase of the number of Saudi students studying abroad. The experience of Saudi students that Song focuses on is also important in identifying how Saudi students fit in a multicultural environment. In explaining the Saudi Arabian cultural mission, Saudi students in multicultural US schools provide rich cultural integration experiences that help in shaping the premises of my paper. For example, Song observes the sentiments of Saudi women students in US and in one instance, a woman responded “back at home, I am used to getting a driver, here you have to do everything on your own” (n.p). Conversely, the entire arguments in the paper are essential in supporting the premises of my proposal. In the part of experience, Song also notes the nature of familiarity Saudi students integrate in the US which is important for adjustment. For example, a student known as Alattas studying cognitive science in Berkeley says “I like that US is very diverse and multicultural and that people are not afraid to identify themselves” (n.p). The indicated experiences at the ground are important for supporting my research. The article will be useful in supporting my paper because it not only focuses on the rising number of Saudi students in the US, but also about their cultural experiences and the manner in which they learn to accept modernity. I will use the article by extracting some of the statistics carried and weighing them on the wider picture of the Saudi Arabian cultural mission. The intent of utilizing the experiences of Saudi students in the US is to support the propensity at which Saudi people readily absorb culture while retaining their positive values even in foreign lands. Lennon, Alexander T. The Epicenter of Crisis: The New Middle East. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2007. Print. Lennon's study postulates that the preconceived global crisis that many analysts have documented has its epicenter in the Middle East. According to Lennon, the arc of the global crisis is believed to stretch from the Balkans through the Middle East into Southeast Asia. This global cauldron of potential ethnic conflict, civil war, failed states, rogue states, proliferation, and terrorism contains many of the security challenges that accelerated globalization presents today. Lennon argues that analysts envision the center of this crisis to be six contiguous states which are Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. These are the countries where Islam and the way it influences the world has been most dramatically changing since the September 11 attacks. Saudi Arabia is home to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad and the holiest city in Islam. It is also the wahhabi branch of Sunni Islam and 15 of the 19 September 11 hijackers. In implication then, the US has focused significantly in improving its relations with Saudi Arabia as a way of combating terrorism. Notably, in the book Lennon argues that after the September 11 attacks, Saudi student visa applications fell by 80 percent. The book offers a foundation for understanding foreign relations in the face of terrorism, and the extent to which education and intercultural bids are part of the wider picture in combating terrorism. In Lennon’s indication that, there was a dramatic decrease in the number of Saudi students studying in the US over the last few years, one has to think on what facilitated the massive rise seen today. Although the book has covered a variety of subjects regarding the Middle East crisis, it equally has insight on Saudi Arabia’s cultural mission rooted in its education and foreign policy. Lennon’s study is important in my research because it presents facts on the ground and has wealth of knowledge needed in my paper. Although Lennon deals with various subjects of crisis in the Middle East, such information will aid me to build a strong introduction of my topic as well as the background of my paper. I intend to use the book extensively because it has covered numerous topics concerning Saudi Arabia’s cultural mission in the face of the Middle East as well as the global crisis. The study notes that the oil reserves in Saudi Arabia are decreasing significantly, and there is need to turn into modern science in order for the country to proliferate technologically and foster all tenets of development. Moreover, historical knowledge provided in the book concerning the global crisis is necessary in understanding US relations with Saudi Arabia. Abir Mordechai. “Modern Education and the Evolution of Saudi Arabia.” National and International Politics in the Middle East: Essays in Honor of Elie Kedourie. Ed. Westport: Routledge, 2013. Print. Mordechai study focuses on modern education in Saudi Arabia and how the country as evolved so far in terms of its focus on education for her citizens. In the study, Mordechai notes the disparity that existed between male and female education, arguing that women were not allowed to get formal education. However, in the current regime, even women have been given opportunities to study and most of them comprise of the high numbers seen in international schools such as those in the US. Mordechai also observes the effect of religion and culture on Saudi Arabian education. The essay examines the implication of extremism in contrast to westernization in the Arab world, and its impact on education. Further, Mordechai presents an extensive analysis of the social, political, cultural, and economic issues in the Middle East and their relationship with Western nations. Essay 13 in the book by Mordechai Abir offers a comprehensive observation regarding modern education and evolution of Saudi Arabia. Over time, Ingram study notes that the Saudi government has offered less funding for its students to travel abroad. The reduction was partly because of Saudi government’s desire to promote its own local universities. The government during the decline also lacked enough resources to support many students study abroad. However, today with oil revenues once again increasing, renewed attention has been paid to promoting education and cultural exchanges between the US and Saudi Arabia. Further, Ingram indicates that, to facilitate these exchanges, the US government has also streamlined visa and entry procedures. The Bush and currently Obama administration officials are credited for fixing a number of the problems that originally stalled many visa applications after the September 11 attacks. The book is useful because of the extent of issues it has focused on: social, political, cultural, and economic once not only in Saudi Arabia but across Middle East. The information provided is fundamental in understanding the place of Saudi Arabian cultural mission and its relation with the US. Actually, one could not from the book that the US realized that providing more opportunities for young Saudis to pursue outside or alongside religious study is one way to slow drain the swamps of terrorism. Notably too, Ingram suggests many other Saudis opt not to visit the US because of the difficulties and harassment that others have experienced and this information is important in understanding the origin of the Saudi cultural mission. Works Cited Abir Mordechai. “Modern Education and the Evolution of Saudi Arabia.” National and International Politics in the Middle East: Essays in Honor of Elie Kedourie. Ed. Westport: Routledge, 2013. Print. Keller, Josh. "Colleges Large and Small Help International Students Adjust to American Life." Chronicle Of Higher Education 56.8 (2009): B20-B23. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 June 2014. Knickmeyer, Ellen. “Saudi Students Flood in as US Reopens Door.” The Wall Street Journal, 8 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 June 2014. Lennon, Alexander T. The Epicenter of Crisis: The New Middle East. Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2007. Print. Song, Jason. “More Saudi Arabians Studying in the US.” Los Angeles Times 24 Nov 2013: T102. Print. ORDER PLAGIARISM FREE PAPER

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